At present, approximately 1500 asteroids are known to evolve inside or sticked to the exterior 1:2 resonance with Mars at a ≃ 2.418 AU, being (142) Polana the largest member of this group. The effect of the forced secular modes superposed to the resonance gives rise to a complex dynamical evolution. Chaotic diffusion, collisions, close encounters with massive asteroids and mainly orbital migration due to the Yarkovsky effect generate continuous captures to and losses from the resonance, with a fraction of asteroids remaining captured over long time scales and generating a concentration in the semimajor axis distribution that exceeds by 20% the population of background asteroids. The Yarkovsky effect induces different dynamics according to the asteroid size, producing an excess of small asteroids inside the resonance. The evolution in the resonance generates a signature on the orbits, mainly in eccentricity, that depends on the time the asteroid remains captured inside the resonance and on the magnitude of the Yarkovsky effect. The greater the asteroids, the larger the time they remain captured in the resonance, allowing greater diffusion in eccentricity and inclination. The resonance generates a discontinuity and mixing in the space of proper elements producing misidentification of dynamical family members, mainly for Vesta and Nysa-Polana families. The half-life of resonant asteroids large enough for not being affected by the Yarkovsky effect is about 1 Gyr. From the point of view of taxonomic classes, the resonant population does not differ from the background population and the excess of small asteroids is confirmed.